Image Gallery: Titan under Saturn’s rings

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Titan appears to float beneath Saturn’s rings. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

A beautiful new photo from Cassini showing Saturn’s largest moon Titan below the plane of the giant planet’s rings. What a view!

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Paul Scott Anderson is a freelance space writer with a life-long passion for space exploration and astronomy. He started his blog The Meridiani Journal in 2005, which is a chronicle of planetary exploration. He also publishes The Exoplanet Report e-paper. In 2011, he started writing about space on a freelance basis, and now also currently write for AmericaSpace and Examiner.com. He has also written for Universe Today and SpaceFlight Insider, has been published in The Mars Quarterly and has done supplementary writing for the well-known iOS app Exoplanet for iPhone and iPad.

Strong winds explain Titan’s immense dunes, according to new study

Radar image of long lines of dunes on Titan. They can be up to 300 feet tall and hundreds of miles long. Image Credit: NASA/JPL–Caltech/ASI/ESA and USGS/ESA
Radar image of long lines of dunes on Titan. They can be up to 300 feet tall and hundreds of miles long. Image Credit: NASA/JPL–Caltech/ASI/ESA and USGS/ESA

Saturn’s largest moon Titan is one of the most Earth-like places in the Solar System, as least in terms of appearances, with its seas, lakes, and rivers (of liquid methane/ethane). But it is similar in another way as well, with vast stretches of huge wind-blown dunes in its equatorial regions. Only Earth, Venus, and Mars are known to have such dunes. Now, scientists think they have figured out how Titan’s dunes can become so immense in size: fast-blowing winds.

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Paul Scott Anderson is a freelance space writer with a life-long passion for space exploration and astronomy. He started his blog The Meridiani Journal in 2005, which is a chronicle of planetary exploration. He also publishes The Exoplanet Report e-paper. In 2011, he started writing about space on a freelance basis, and now also currently write for AmericaSpace and Examiner.com. He has also written for Universe Today and SpaceFlight Insider, has been published in The Mars Quarterly and has done supplementary writing for the well-known iOS app Exoplanet for iPhone and iPad.

Cassini plumbs the depths and new mysteries of Titan’s seas

Cassini radar image of part of Kraken Mare, the largest sea on Titan. Radar echoes on a 25-mile (40-kilometer) track along the eastern shoreline are shown as black and blue circles. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell
Cassini radar image of part of Kraken Mare, the largest sea on Titan. Radar echoes on a 25-mile (40-kilometer) track along the eastern shoreline are shown as black and blue circles. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell

The Cassini spacecraft continues to make new discoveries about Titan’s methane seas and lakes, answering some questions but raising additional ones as well. As announced this week, Cassini has discovered two more of the unusual “magic islands” – bright features which seem to appear in the seas where they didn’t exist before – and has measured the depth of the largest Titanian sea.

The new findings were presented this week at the Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Tucson, Ariz.

During a flyby of Titan last Aug. 21, Cassini made an intriguing discovery similar to an earlier one: two new mysterious bright features in Kraken Mare, much like the one seen before in another sea, Ligeia Mare. Like the previous bright feature, dubbed “magic island,” the new ones seemed to have appeared where nothing was seen before during previous observations. In this case though, the feature was seen in both radar data and images from Cassini’s Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Just what these features are is still unknown, but current theories include waves or floating debris.

Radar images of the Kraken Mare sea on Titan, showing a new bright feature similar to the previous “magic island” which appeared sometime between May 23, 2013, and Aug. 21, 2014. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell
Radar images of the Kraken Mare sea on Titan, showing a new bright feature similar to the previous “magic island” which appeared sometime between May 23, 2013, and Aug. 21, 2014. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell

As reported in National Geographic, “They could be waves, or they could be something more solid,” according to Jason Soderblom of MIT, a member of the Cassini team. “We definitely know now they are something reflecting from the surface.” As Alexander Hayes of Cornell added, “After ten years there, Titan still can surprise us. Titan has dunes, lakes, seas, even rivers. All this makes Titan an explorer’s utopia.”

Although Cassini won’t be able to re-image the oddity in Kraken Mare during the rest of its mission, it will have a chance to look at the one in Ligeia Mare once more, in January 2015. Any new observations could help scientists to understand what is causing these enigmatic “islands” to appear the way they do.

Cassini also used its onboard radar to measure the depths of Kraken Mare, the moon’s largest sea. The radar covered a shore-to-shore track spanning 120 miles (200 kilometers); for 25 miles (40 kilometers) along this track on the eastern shoreline, Cassini measures depths of 66 to 115 feet (20 to 35 meters), shown as the blue circles in the image above. This part of the sea is near a large flooded river valley, which empties into Kraken Mare just as rivers do on Earth.

Radar map of Titan’s north polar region, showing Kraken Mare, Ligeia Mare, and Punga Mare. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/USGS
Radar map of Titan’s north polar region, showing Kraken Mare, Ligeia Mare, and Punga Mare. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/USGS

In other areas of Kraken Mare, the radar did not show an echo from the seafloor, suggesting that the sea is too deep in those areas for the radar beam to penetrate, or possibly that the radar beam was absorbed by the liquid. Other radar data showed steep slopes leading down into the sea along the shoreline, also hinting that Kraken Mare may be quite deep in places. The deeper parts of Kraken Mare have been estimated to be 656 feet (200 meters) deep or more.

In January 2015, Cassini will measure the depth of another sea, Punga Mare, the smallest of three large seas in Titan’s north polar region.

As to determining just what these “magic islands” actually are, that will probably require a follow-up mission. Apart from another orbiter, proposals on the drawing boards include a possible boat, blimp, or airplane to further investigate Titan close-up. Perhaps even a submersible at some point in the future to “plumb Titan’s seas” for real.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed, and assembled at JPL. The radar instrument was built by JPL and the Italian Space Agency, working with team members from the United States and several European countries.

This article was first published on AmericaSpace.

Paul Scott Anderson is a freelance space writer with a life-long passion for space exploration and astronomy. He started his blog The Meridiani Journal in 2005, which is a chronicle of planetary exploration. He also publishes The Exoplanet Report e-paper. In 2011, he started writing about space on a freelance basis, and now also currently write for AmericaSpace and Examiner.com. He has also written for Universe Today and SpaceFlight Insider, has been published in The Mars Quarterly and has done supplementary writing for the well-known iOS app Exoplanet for iPhone and iPad.

Titan’s seas and lakes sparkle in the sunlight in recent Cassini images

Near-infrared view, taken Aug. 21, 2014 from Cassini of sunlight glints on methane/ethane seas and lakes near Titan's north pole. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University of Idaho
Near-infrared view, taken Aug. 21, 2014 from Cassini of sunlight glints on methane/ethane seas and lakes near Titan’s north pole. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University of Idaho

Saturn’s moon Titan is a very unique world, and the only place in the solar system known to have seas and lakes (liquid methane/ethane) on its surface, other than Earth. And just like our home world, if you look at them at the right moment from space, you can see sunlight gleaming off of them, as the Cassini spacecraft just did again on Aug. 21, 2014.

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Paul Scott Anderson is a freelance space writer with a life-long passion for space exploration and astronomy. He started his blog The Meridiani Journal in 2005, which is a chronicle of planetary exploration. He also publishes The Exoplanet Report e-paper. In 2011, he started writing about space on a freelance basis, and now also currently write for AmericaSpace and Examiner.com. He has also written for Universe Today and SpaceFlight Insider, has been published in The Mars Quarterly and has done supplementary writing for the well-known iOS app Exoplanet for iPhone and iPad.

Giant cloud at Titan’s south pole is toxic and freezing cold

View from Cassini of the huge polar vortex cloud over Titan’s south pole. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/University of Arizona/SSI/Leiden Observatory and SRON
View from Cassini of the huge polar vortex cloud over Titan’s south pole. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/University of Arizona/SSI/Leiden Observatory and SRON

Titan is the only moon in the solar system known to have a dense atmosphere, and while similar to Earth’s atmosphere in some ways, such as being rich in nitrogen, it also holds surprises for planetary scientists. Analysis of data from Cassini of a huge cloud which hovers over the moon’s south pole shows that it is both toxic and colder than expected.

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Paul Scott Anderson is a freelance space writer with a life-long passion for space exploration and astronomy. He started his blog The Meridiani Journal in 2005, which is a chronicle of planetary exploration. He also publishes The Exoplanet Report e-paper. In 2011, he started writing about space on a freelance basis, and now also currently write for AmericaSpace and Examiner.com. He has also written for Universe Today and SpaceFlight Insider, has been published in The Mars Quarterly and has done supplementary writing for the well-known iOS app Exoplanet for iPhone and iPad.

It’s back! ‘Mystery Island’ in Titan sea makes unexpected reappearance

Three radar images, taken from April 2007 to August 2014, showing how the “mystery island” in Ligeia Mare has changed in appearance over time. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell
Three radar images, taken from April 2007 to August 2014, showing how the “mystery island” in Ligeia Mare has changed in appearance over time. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell

The mystery of an unusual feature in one of Titan’s hydrocarbon seas, dubbed the “mystery island,” has taken an interesting turn. After apparently disappearing following its initial discovery in 2013, it has now reappeared and has changed in appearance and size, as well.

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Paul Scott Anderson is a freelance space writer with a life-long passion for space exploration and astronomy. He started his blog The Meridiani Journal in 2005, which is a chronicle of planetary exploration. He also publishes The Exoplanet Report e-paper. In 2011, he started writing about space on a freelance basis, and now also currently write for AmericaSpace and Examiner.com. He has also written for Universe Today and SpaceFlight Insider, has been published in The Mars Quarterly and has done supplementary writing for the well-known iOS app Exoplanet for iPhone and iPad.

Rainfall on Titan may create propane aquifers, study suggests

Illustration of a cross-section of Titan’s surface and near-subsurface, showing the surface lakes/seas, underground aquifers, clathrate layers, and icy crust. Image Credit: ESA/ATG medialab
Illustration of a cross-section of Titan’s surface and near-subsurface, showing the surface lakes/seas, underground aquifers, clathrate layers, and icy crust. Image Credit: ESA/ATG medialab

Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is a very alien yet eerily Earth-like world, with rain, rivers, lakes, and seas; seen from above, the landscape has a familiar look to it. But those lakes, seas, and rivers are fed by a different kind of rainfall – liquid methane/ethane. It is far too cold on the surface for liquid water, but the liquid hydrocarbons nicely fill in for H20 in Titan’s “water cycle.” Now, a new study shows how this rainfall interacts with and changes underground aquifers.

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Paul Scott Anderson is a freelance space writer with a life-long passion for space exploration and astronomy. He started his blog The Meridiani Journal in 2005, which is a chronicle of planetary exploration. He also publishes The Exoplanet Report e-paper. In 2011, he started writing about space on a freelance basis, and now also currently write for AmericaSpace and Examiner.com. He has also written for Universe Today and SpaceFlight Insider, has been published in The Mars Quarterly and has done supplementary writing for the well-known iOS app Exoplanet for iPhone and iPad.