Category Archives: Europa

Image Gallery: Europa redux

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute

Europa. Click for larger version. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute

NASA just released this new version of probably the most well-known image of Jupiter’s moon Europa. First taken in the late 1990s by the Galileo spacecraft, this version has been enhanced by more current imaging techniques, with more accurate colours. The cracked icy surface hides a deep global ocean of water, making Europa a prime target in the search for life elsewhere.

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Plate tectonics may increase chances for life on Europa

Europa, with its subsurface ocean, and now evidence for plate tectonics, is a primary goal of exploration in the search for alien life. Processed image copyright: Ted Stryk. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Ted Stryk

Europa, with its subsurface ocean, and now evidence for plate tectonics, is a primary goal of exploration in the search for alien life. Processed image copyright: Ted Stryk. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Ted Stryk

Jupiter’s moon Europa is a fascinating little world, but particularly so for one reason: water. It’s deep alien ocean underneath the surface ice is reminiscent of our own planet, and since our oceans and seas are teeming with life, even beneath the ice at the poles, could Europa’s ocean also harbor life of some kind? Now, another discovery shows that Europa may be similar to Earth in yet another way, and one that could bolster the chances of life even more: plate tectonics. The new results were just published in Nature Geoscience on Sep. 7, 2014.

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NASA seeks science instrument proposals for future mission to Europa

The Europa Clipper is a leading contender for a return mission to Jupiter’s ocean moon. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The Europa Clipper is a leading contender for a return mission to Jupiter’s ocean moon. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

For many space enthusiasts, a new mission to Jupiter’s ocean moon Europa is high up on their wishlists. Yesterday, NASA announced that they are seeking proposals for science instruments for just such a mission, bringing it one step closer to reality.

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Image Gallery: reddish bands on Europa’s surface

converted PNM file

The icy surface of Europa, with reddish bands of water ice mixed with hydrated salts. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute

The icy surface of Europa, with reddish bands of water ice mixed with hydrated salts. Click for larger version. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute

A “new” (previously unreleased) colour view of Europa’s surface from the old Galileo spacecraft; the image is a product of clear-filter grayscale data from one orbit, combined with lower-resolution colour data taken on a different orbit. The surface here is primarily almost pure water ice, with reddish bands of water ice containing hydrated salts. The image area measures approximately 163 km by 167 km (101 by 103 miles). What might be found in the subsurface ocean below? More information here.

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NASA seeking concepts for mission to Europa

Europa floats in front of Jupiter in this stunning view of the enigmatic ocean moon. NASA has issued a call for proposals to send a spacecraft to explore this world - and its ocean. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech

Europa floats in front of Jupiter in this stunning view of the enigmatic ocean moon. NASA has issued a call for proposals to send a spacecraft to explore this world – and its ocean. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech

A mission to Europa has long been on many people’s must-do wish list, and now NASA is taking another step closer to making that a reality. NASA has formally issued a Request for Information (RFI) to various science and engineering communities for ideas on how to design a mission to this exciting moon of Jupiter, which harbors an underground ocean that could possibly support life of some kind.

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Europa or bust: possible mission to icy moon in fy 2015 budget proposal

Europa peeking out from Jupiter's limb, as seen by Voyager 2 on July 3, 1979. Credit: NASA / JPL / Daniel Macháček

Europa peeking out from Jupiter’s limb, as seen by Voyager 2 on July 3, 1979. Credit: NASA / JPL / Daniel Macháček

For scientists and space enthusiasts who have been advocating a mission to Jupiter’s moon Europa, there was some good news this week from NASA. A mission to Europa has been officially included in the NASA 2015 Budget request. The inclusion is a reason for cautious optimism; while naming it as a target for a future robotic mission in the 2020s, NASA also wants to do that mission as cheaply as possible. Given the current economic climate, that may not be surprising, but what would reduced cost mean in terms of science?

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Europa may have active plate tectonics, study suggests

The ocean moon Europa, with its heavily cracked icy surface. Credit: NASA/JPL/Stryk

The ocean moon Europa, with its heavily cracked icy surface. Credit: NASA/JPL/Stryk

Europa has been in the news a lot this past week, with the discovery of apparent plumes of water vapour erupting from its surface, similar to those on Saturn’s moon Enceladus. An exciting find, given that this moon has a global ocean of water covered by its icy crust. There was also the first detection of clay-type minerals on Europa’s surface. Now, another discovery shows that Europa may be similar to Earth in yet another way – the first other known world to have active plate tectonics, it was announced last Friday at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco.

Why is this significant? Plate tectonics can provide a way for nutrients to be carried from the surface down into the waters below, just as they do on Earth.

According to planetary scientist Alyssa Rhoden, a NASA postdoctoral program fellow, “What’s exciting is that this would be the only other place outside of Earth where a plate-tectonic-style system is occurring.”

Scientists have known for some time that Europa has a relatively young surface which is being replenished somehow by new, fresh ice. It is thought that this ice is coming up through features called dilational bands, which are long cracks on the surface. There are thousands of them, making Europa look like a giant cracked eggshell. The new ice also keeps Europa’s surface remarkably smooth with very few craters.

New studies now suggest that the dilational bands behave in a similar way to Earth’s tectonic plates. New ice rises up through the cracks to the surface, but where does the old ice go?

Planetary scientist Simon Kattenhorn of the University of Idaho explained what they think is happening during their presentation for the AGU meeting:

“Unless Europa has been expanding within the last 40 to 90 million years, there has to be some process on this icy moon that’s able to accommodate a large amount of new surface area being created at dilational bands.”

That process would be similar to what happens along mid-ocean ridges on Earth, where crustal tectonic plates meet together. New crust, or in Europa’s case, ice, is forced upward through the spaces between the plates where it forms newer crust. Older crust in turn is then forced back down into the Earth’s mantle in places where a continental plate meets an oceanic plate. In this process, called subduction, the oceanic plate is pushed below the continental plate. This whole exchange is an efficient global recycling between old and new material.

Now for the first time, what appear to be subduction zones have been identified on Europa as well, by Kattenhorn and his colleagues. This is important, since organic material, also just found on Europa’s surface for the first time, and nutrients could then have a way of making it down below the surface and into the water deep below. This of course has a direct bearing on the possibility of life in Europa’s ocean. Minerals necessary for life are likely present on the rocky ocean bottom as well since the rocky mantle is thought to be in direct contact with the ocean water just like on Earth.

There may still be another explanation for the observations, but this and other evidence continues to show that Europa is a geologically active little world instead of just a frozen ice ball as once believed. And maybe, just maybe, a living one as well.

This article was first published on Examiner.com.

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Water plumes and clay-type minerals discovered on Jupiter’s ocean moon Europa

NASA and the European Space Agency have made several startling discoveries about the icy Jovian moon Europa. Credit: NASA/ESA

NASA and the European Space Agency have made several startling discoveries about the icy Jovian moon Europa. Credit: NASA/ESA

Europa has intrigued people for decades, ever since the first evidence was found that this small icy moon of Jupiter harbours a subsurface ocean. Additional information about the actual conditions below the surface have been difficult to obtain, since this ocean is covered by a global crust of ice perhaps ten of kilometres thick in places. But perseverance pays off, and now in just this past week there are two new significant discoveries being talked about – evidence from the Hubble Space Telescope for water vapour plumesannounced on Thursdayerupting from Europa’s surface similar to those on Saturn’s moon Enceladus, and the first detection of clay-type minerals on the surface, announced on Wednesday.

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Searching for life in Europa’s ocean – with a tiny submarine

Artist's conception of DADU exploring ice-covered waters. Credit: Jonas Jonsson / Angstrom Space Technology Centre of Uppsala University

Artist’s conception of DADU exploring ice-covered waters.
Credit: Jonas Jonsson / Angstrom Space Technology Centre of Uppsala University

For decades, Jupiter’s moon Europa has been the focus of fascination and debate. Why? Because it has a global ocean – a deep, salty ocean similar to those on Earth, except that in Europa’s case it is always covered by a crust of ice. Speculation has grown that there could be life of some kind in that alien watery darkness, and now there is a new proposal for how to look for it – a tiny submarine!

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Does Europa have ‘icy spikes’ on its surface?

Penitentes on the Andes mountains on Earth. Is there something similar on Europa as well? Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Penitentes on the Andes mountains on Earth. Is there something similar on Europa as well?
Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Europa is a fascinating little world, a moon with an icy crust and a subsurface global ocean. The environment is similar to the ice-covered waters at the Earth’s poles. Now scientists think that there may be another feature which is also found on Earth – huge frozen spikes of ice on the surface.

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